Deep-Sky astrophotography deals with the photography of stellar bodies outside of our solar system such as galaxies, planetary nebulae, open star clusters and globular clusters. Getting into deep-sky astrophotography doesn't have to be expensive if you know how to use your existing camera gear. With the proper technique an entry level DSLR or Superzoom camera might just be enough to capture even faint galaxies. The images won't be as good as with more expensive gear but nevertheless its impressive to see what is possible with digital postprocessing today.
The challange of astrophotography lies in the faintness of the observed objects and their slow and steady motion across the night sky. Good images require long exposure times which in turn requires specialized tracking mounts to compensate for the motion of the stars due to the earths rotation around its axis. The tracking mounts have to be aligned with the northern star which requires a bit of experience. The cost of an entry level tracking mount and a polar scope together is approximately around 500 Dollar and i would strongle encourage you to get a tracking mount but if you are just starting with astrophotography or want to travel with light gear this webpage may give you an alternative.
A tracking mount is similar to a rotary disc. It is revolving once every 24 hours around its own axis. The motion is pretty similar to the hour hand of a mechanical clock. Consequently the first tracking mounts were based on modified clockworks. Instead of the hour hand a rotary disc with camera attachement points was rotated. To make a tracking mount work it has to be aligned properly with the earths axis. This mean the axis of rotation must be pointed to the northern star. If this is the case the rotation of the tracking mount will cancel out the earths rotation and longer exposure times are possible. The alignment of the tracking mount is crucial for the tracking accuracy. Even with a properly aligned tracking mount exposure times will be limited to a couple of minutes without additional hardware. Such hardware comes in the form of so called auto guiding units. An auto guiding unit is a computer controlled image acquisition system usually mounted on a smaller scope at the side of the main scope that is tracking additional stars in a wide angle image. This information is then used to correct the tracking of the main scope.
As you can see astrophotography can become very complex very fast. But this should not prevent you from making the first step towards your own deep-sky images. If you continue reading I will explain how you can make astrophotos with your standard photography gear.
Without tracking long exposure times will cause star trails to appear in an astrophoto (see Image 2). The star trails are shaped like tiny circle segments centered around the northern star. An exposure time of 24 h would theoretically result in full circles but is not possible due to the night/day cycle. Star trail photography is also a popular branch of the astrophotography but shall not be investigated in detail here.
The name fixed tripod astrophotography refers to the lack of a tracking mount. Sometimes this branch of astrophotography is also called Untracked astrophotography. The term "untracked" however is a bit misleading. It refers to the lack of mechanical tracking. Fixed Tripod Astrophotography is using a computer to overlay a series of shortly exposed lightframes properly. The tracking takes place in a software as part of the postprocessing toolchain. Without mechanical tracking star trails can only be avoided by limiting the exposure time. The maximum possible exposure time depends on the focal length of the objective and the distance of the galaxy from the northern star. An empirical rule for estimating the exposure time is the so called "500 Rule" (sometimes "600 Rule"). According to this rule the maximum exposure time that will not show star trails is calculated by dividing 500 (respectively 600) by the focal length of the objective. For a 200 mm lens this rule will yield 2.5 respectively 3 seconds maximum exposure time. Usually this is too short for capturing enough light for deep-sky astrophotography but in the case of untracked astrophotography it is the best one can get for the single lightframes. In order to get the longer exposure times needed for imaging deep-sky objects many of those short exposure time frames are combined into a single image. The process of combining the single frames is called "stacking". This process is performed by software that is computing the positional difference of the lightframes and merges them into a single image by adding all available frames.
The problem when taking a long series of images from a fixed tripod is that the galaxy will inevitably wander out of the field of view of the camera. If this happens the camera needs to be readjusted before proceeding. This readjustment could also be seen as a kind of tracking. As opposed to real tracking with a tracking mount this tracking does not happen continuously but in intervalls. When using a 200 mm lens 50-100 images can be taken before readjusting the camera. When using shorter focal lengths the number of images increases.
Lightframes obtained by using 2-3 seconds of exposure time are usually severely underexposed, sometimes they appear completely black (apart from a few faint stars). Underexposed images pose a problem for digital image processing. To understand this one has to consider that digital image formats store brightness data with a distinct number of discrete brightness levels. The number of levels depends on the number of bits used for storing the data. Formats using 8 bit per color channel provide 256 different levels (2^8=256) whilst formats operating with 14 bits provide (16384 different levels (2^14=16384). These numbers are relevant because the commonly used JPEG format is using 8 bit storage per color channel whilst most modern cameras will operate with 14 bit data per color channel internally. This is one reason why the RAW image format option should be preferred over JPEG storage option.
If an image is underexposed the brightest pixel in the image is darker that the highest possible value. If the brightest pixel in an underexposed 8 bit image has the value 64 only 6 of the 8 available bits are used for storing the image data. The total number of different brightness levels is then only 64 instead of 256. Such a low number of different brightness levels is insufficient for displaying the faint details of galaxies or planetary nebulae. This can only be avoided by preventing underexposed images in the first place. Underexposure can be prevented by setting the ISO value appropriately. This setting will cause the camera to amplify the image signal and thus prevent underexposure. It is important to understand that this setting will also amplify the image noise so that no gain in information can be achieved. The only effect is that the image information can be stored with fewer loss due to digitization. The ISO value should be choosen in a way that the relevant parts of the image are exposed properly. This may also mean that some stars may be overexposed. (Do not be afraid to use ISO 12800 or even higher!)
The following image is a single lightframe of the andromeda galaxy taken with 2 seconds exposure time. The image was taken at ISO 12800. The core region of the galaxy is barely visible. The noise level is extreme. This image is representative for the quality of the lightframes when doing untracked astrophotography. In the next sections we will learn why this isn't a problem as we have a closer look into stacking algorithms. We will also learn what Lightframes, Darkframes and Flatframes are and how they can help us making better images.